AMERICA’S CUP HISTORY 1983 - 2013
Emirates Team New Zealand "foiling" with both hulls out of the water. The windward side "draggerboard" is raised.
."Foiling" (sliding) comes from the term "Hydrofoiling". That means the
AC72 lifts at greater speed and winds of about 10 knots and especially
downwind, completely out of the water and sails on sliding surfaces (the
"foils" = hydrofoils) at the rudders and the draggerboards.
Each of the 2 draggerboards carries an inward, L-or J-shaped (Artemis I)
At the bottoms of the rudders are the T-shaped "elevators", a rigid,
symmetrical or asymmetrical, elliptical wing. (As "elevators" they lift the
boat out of the water, but can -just as the rudder itself -be moved only
In thousands - as says the team - processing and test hours ETNZ
developed the "foiling" The first tests on the water took place in
This technique has been successfully adapted by Oracle, Luna Rossa and
With this technique, the boats reached until now unimaginable speeds.
The New Zealanders sailed on the 18.July 2013 with 44.3 knots to the 80
The "foils" were not specified in the AC72 Class Rule, since they were
developed after its entry into force
Broken rudderblade of Oracle with
The AC72 Class Rule and the 2 controversial points of the
37 points Safety Recommendations
Artemis II with the L-shaped "draggerboard" and the "elevator" on
the rudder blade’s end
The AC72 Class Rule is a set of technical
rules that determines the design
parameters of the AC72 catamaran in a
relatively wide range. The latest version
was Published on 16 July 2012.
When she came into force, the hydro-
dynamically highly developed retractable
draggerboards and the rudders were still
"flat boards" only - with the functions to
counteract the drift, or to steer the
catamaran and to keep it stable.
This AC72 Class Rule can be only
changed by the Measurement
Committee, with the approval of all
After the fatal accident of the Artemis
Racing catamaran on 9 in May 2013
Ian Murray, Regatta Director of the AC,
organized a Safety Committe. Then he
published Safety Recommendations with
2 key points.
1 point dealt with minimum sizes and shapeof the rudders and
The 2nd Punt provided for an increase in weight by 100 kg to 6000 kg.
After their analysis of the accident and after consultation with the teams and the Coast Guard on he issued 22
May, a comprehensive 37 point paper, the "Safety Recommendations.
These were binding proposals to optimize the safety on board and around for the followingl Cup events.
Iain Murray wanted to avoid in future that an AC72 can immerse with a bow and roll over due to too short
rudder blades or inappropriate elevator surfaces. He generated heated debates and protests
These proposals were interpreted as interference with the "AC72 Class Rule." For these changes the Regatta
Director was overstepping his competence. Responsible is the Measurement Committe with the required
approval of all teams.
While all the participants had accepted these points already before, ETNZ and Luna Rossa had raised on these
2 points an appeal to the "International Jury" and got right.
But as it was a formal decision only that the Measurement Committe is responsible, everything remained the
Iain Murray with his 46 years of experience as a skipper, organizer and designer, a respected and integrity Cup
veteran, was suddenly -- to his great annoyance - also alleged to have written these two points on pressure of
1982 they spoke of the attempts to throw Australia II because its wing keel from the Cup, of a "Keelgate"
(following President Nixon's Watergate). So now some journalists tried to speak of a "Ruddergate".